Humans and C. elegans have similar antioxidant systems due to the possession of similar antioxidant enzymes (Superoxide Dismutase, SOD; Catalase, CAT) and related genes (Glutathione S-transferase, GST and Peroxidase Gene, PRDX). Therefore, C. elegans has become an excellent animal model for dissecting the gene regulatory networks involved in the oxidative stress response. As experts in C. elegans research, CD BioSciences is confident to provide you with a comprehensive C. elegans oxidative stress analysis service.
Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance between ROS production and detoxification, which causes energy depletion, cellular damage, and triggers cell death. A wide variety of oxidants are produced in cells, and many biomolecules (DNA, proteins, lipids, etc.) are vulnerable to ROS attack, causing or exacerbating a variety of metabolic diseases. Oxidative stress contributes to chronic human diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, aging, and cancer. Therefore, it is critical to study oxidative stress in cellular systems and throughout the organism. Although C. elegans is evolutionarily distant from mammals, it also represents an adequate model to complement in vitro and in vivo vertebrate models of oxidative stress, whose oxidative stress pathways are highly conserved evolutionarily.
Fig.1 Oxidative Stress Resistance via the SKN-1 and IIS Pathways in C. elegans. (Moreno-Arriola E, et al., 2014)
The main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in most cells is the mitochondria, and when the ROS concentration exceeds the cellular antioxidant capacity, the cells experience severe DNA, lipid and protein damage and present a state of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress caused by high doses of ROS is not only one of the major causes of aging, but also associated with the pathogenesis of many diseases. In C. elegans, many antioxidant enzymes have been identified to prevent ROS overproduction, helping to maintain cellular homeostasis, and minimizing oxidative damage:
|Antioxidant Enzymes||C. elegans Enzyme||Cellular localization|
|Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) SOD||Cu/ZnSODs (sod-1 andsod-5)||Cytosol|
|MnSODs (sod-2 and sod-3)||Mitochondria|
|Predicted Cu/ZnSOD (sod-4)||Extracellular matrix|
|Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx)||gpx1-8||Unknown|
|Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs)||Ce-GST-p24 (gst-4/K08F4.7)||Intestine|
|CeGSTP2-2 (gst-10)||Muscle cells|
CD BioSciences offers a broad and comprehensive portfolio of C. elegans oxidative stress analysis services, from the construction of C. elegans oxidative stress model systems to the detection of various antioxidant functions in C. elegans, to help you further explore eukaryotic oxidative stress mechanisms and provide potential targets for drug discovery. We offer ROS-inducing reagents including but not limited to:
Identifying redox-sensitive proteins in eukaryotic tissues.
Exploring genes and oxidative stress signal transduction pathways.
Drug screening for oxidative stress-associated human disease.
As a powerful model organism, C. elegans can be used to recapitulate most human diseases at the metabolic or genomic level in vivo. At CD BioSciences, our experienced scientists offer custom solutions for your C. elegans research. If you are interested in our services or have any questions, please feel free to contact us.