Reproductive Capacity Analysis Service

Reproduction is one of the representative biological processes, which is an essential route for the preservation of species through fertilization and closely associated with aging and human diseases. Since successful reproduction is the ultimate goal of an organism, the age-related decline of reproductive function is likely to take a critical part in the evolution of aging. Due to the limitations of in vivo studies, the experimental challenges of elucidating the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of reproduction in humans or other vertebrates are substantial. Therefore, the free-living nematode C. elegans is a leading model system for studies of reproductive capacity analysis.

The reproduction of C. elegans

Most nematodes develop as self-fertile hermaphrodites, so they don’t need males to replicate. There are males, but they are rather rare, just 0.02% of the whole population. The anatomical structures and components are different between males and self-fertile hermaphrodites. The reproductive system of the hermaphrodites consists of three major parts, including two bilaterally symmetric U-shaped somatic gonads, the germline, and the egg-laying apparatus, whereas the system of males is composed of one somatic gonad and the germline. Therefore, hermaphrodites produce mature gametes, while males produce and store sperm for mating. In nematodes, reproduction ceases relatively early in life. For wild-type hermaphrodites at 20°C, the lifespan is only 15.2 days, and the self-fertile reproductive span is 5.8 days, which can be extended by cold temperature. Furthermore, the self-fertile reproductive span appears to be determined by the number of sperms, while the generated number of sperms is controlled by a developmental switch, and the rate of sperm utilization. Apart from a short life cycle of C. elegans, the structure of the reproductive system is simple, and the production of large numbers of progeny compared with mammals, have led the nematodes to become an excellent experimental material for the study of reproduction.

The C. elegans reproductive system- CD BioSciencesThe C. elegans reproductive system- CD BioSciences

Reproductive capacity analysis services in CD BioSciences

  • Brood size assay

The brood size is determined by hatched individual males and hermaphrodites. The synchronized larvae 1 (L1) animals are prepared and allowed to grow to larvae 4 (L4). Only two L4 animals are placed on plates and transferred until adult animals stopped laying eggs. Eggs laid on the plates corresponding to each day are allowed to hatch and the nematodes reach the young adult stage for two days at 20°C incubators. The number of progeny is counted under a dissecting microscope after anesthetizing by 100% ethanol.

  • Ovulation/egg-laying rate

For calculation of ovulation/egg-laying rate at Day 2, larvae 4 animals are prepared with the same method as brood size described in the above until Day 1. Then, at Day 2, four time intervals are set, and every three hours a time. After egg production is completed, all progeny hatched during each time period are then counted and the rates are calculated by each time interval to divide the sum of progeny hatched during each time interval.

  • Screen the factors that influence the age-related decline of progeny production

We offer services to screen factors that influence reproductive aging in hermaphrodites, such as various kinds of drugs and mutations that extend lifespan.

Successful reproduction is a prerequisite for animals living in an evolutionary context. The reproduction behavior of C. elegans is simple and effective and easy to observe. CD BioSciences offers reproductive capacity analysis service for our customers to achieve research goals.CD BioSciences is your best and the most reliable partner. We are looking forward to cooperating with you! Please be free to contact us for more details of our service.


  1. Kim Y, et al.(2018). "Comparative genomic analysis of the human and nematode Caenorhabditis elegans uncovers potential reproductive genes and disease associations in humans". Physiol Genomics. 50(11):1002-1014.

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